afford

英 [əˈfɔːd]      美 [əˈfɔːrd]
  • vt. 给予,提供;买得起
  • n. (Afford)人名;(英)阿福德
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afford 提供

前缀af-同ad-, 去,往。词根ford,向前,同forth. 指资助,推动前进。

afford
afford: [OE] This verb originally meant ‘accomplish, fulfil’. In Old English times it was geforthian, formed from the prefix ge-, denoting completion of an action, and forthian ‘advance towards completion’ or literally ‘further’ (from the adverb forth). The notion of accomplishing something or managing something gradually led, by the 15th century, to the idea of being able to do something because one has enough money.

Meanwhile, the original ge- prefix, which by Middle English times had become i- (iforthien), had been transformed into af- under the influence of the many Latin-based words beginning in aff-, and in the 16th century spellings with final d in place of th start to appear.

=> forth
afford (v.)
Middle English aforthen, from Old English geforðian "to put forth, contribute; further, advance; carry out, accomplish," from ge- completive prefix (see a- (1)) + forðian "to further," from forð "forward, onward" (see forth).

Change of -th- to -d- took place late 16c. (and also transformed burthen and murther into their modern forms). Prefix shift to af- took place 16c. under mistaken belief that it was a Latin word in ad-. Notion of "accomplish" (late Old English) gradually became "be able to bear the expense of, have enough money" to do something (late 14c.). Older sense is preserved in afford (one) an opportunity. Related: Afforded; affording.
1. They could not afford to spoil those maps by careless colouring.
若是上色的时候不小心弄坏了那些地图,他们可承担不起。
2. They pay full rates. Mind you, they can afford it.
他们付全价,请注意,他们是付得起的。
3. It would be nice to be able to afford to retire earlier.
无后顾之忧而能提早退休当是件幸事。
4. I really can't afford to see this company go belly up.
我绝对不能眼睁睁地看着这家公司垮掉。
5. He could not afford luxury food on his pay.
靠自己的工资他买不起奢侈的食品。